Child welfare as justice: why are we not effectively addressing inequalities?

Summary: Explores questions raised by the Child Welfare Inequalities Project, a four-nation comparison of child welfare interventions in the UK. Looks at theoretical ideas from political theory, psychology and moral philosophy to explore whether inequalities in child welfare interventions should be addressed.

Authors: Gavin Davidson, Lisa Bunting, Paul Bywaters, Brid Featherstone and Claire McCartan
Journal: British Journal of Social Work (Vol.47, No.6), September 2017, pp 1641-1651
Go to publication

Exploring peer mentoring as a form of innovative practice with young people at risk of child sexual exploitation.

Summary: Explores peer support as a response to child sexual exploitation. Presents findings from a qualitative study of the Manchester Active Voices (MAV), a young people’s service which works with young women who have been exploited or are at risk of gang exploitation. Finds that peer mentoring may have emotional, practical and interpersonal benefits for vulnerable young people.

Authors: Gillian Buck, Angela Lawrence and Ester Ragonese
Journal: British Journal of Social Work (Vol.47, No.6), September 2017, pp 1745-1763
Go to publication

‘Pupil mental health crisis?’ survey report 2017: examining the current state of mental wellbeing in young people and children in the UK.

Summary: Findings from a survey of 603 school leaders and governors across the UK looking at pupil mental health. Findings include: 58 per cent of respondents said there is insufficient mental health provision for pupils available within their schools; 86 per cent said that social media has directly impacted the mental health of pupils; and 83 per cent said mental health issues have increased in the last five years.

Authors: Hub4Leaders and Leeds Beckett University
Publication details: [Leeds]: Hub4Leaders, 2018
Go to publication

Life in ‘likes’: Children’s Commissioner report into social media use among 8-12 year olds.

Summary: Looks at the ways younger children use social media platforms and the effect on their wellbeing. Findings from focus groups involving 32 children aged 8 to 12 years old include: the most popular social media were Snapchat, Instagram, and WhatsApp; social media was important for maintaining relationships, but this got more difficult to manage at secondary school, where friendships could break down online. Recommendations include: broadening digital literacy education in schools beyond safety messages, to develop children’s critical awareness and resilience, focusing on the transition stage from primary to secondary school.

Authors: Children’s Commissioner for England
Publication details: [London]: Office of the Children’s Commissioner, 2018
Go to publication

Peer-on-Peer Abuse Toolkit.

Summary: Toolkit to help schools prevent peer-on-peer abuse, identify it at an early stage and respond to it appropriately. Offers guidance on developing and introducing a peer-on-peer abuse policy. Topics covered include: developing an overarching policy and introducing it to the school community; tailoring your policy to your school’s specific context; risk assessment; appropriate language and approaches; ongoing protective work. Includes a template peer-on-peer abuse policy.

Authors: David Smellie, Adele Eastman, Katie Rigg and Carlene Firmin
Publication details: London: Farrer & Co, 2017
Go to publication

A model of engagement with children, young people and planners in the development of Children’s Services plans.

Summary: Describes the process for developing a model for enabling children in Scotland to take part in and influence how adults plan and run services for them in their area. The model was developed by Edinburgh Children’s Partnership as part of a pilot initiative to devise a methodology for engagement that is jointly owned by children, young people and professionals.

Authors: Scottish Government
Publication details: Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2017
Go to publication

Children England – Latest News

Briefing: The Children and Social Work Act
We’ve published a summary of the Children and Social Work Act (Part 1), and brought together useful briefings and commentaries relating to these provisions. It includes

  • Corporate Parenting Principles for local authorities
  • More educational support for previously looked after children
  • Significant changes to local safeguarding arrangements
  • Statutory relationships and sex education in all secondary schools

700,000 children living in unsafe rented homes
Analysis by the Labour Party shows that 1 million rented homes in England are unsafe and that almost 700,000 children are living in them, at risk from fire, vermin and other threats to their health and safety. Labour’s Bill to make homes fit for human habitation is currently going through the House of Commons
Child poverty exceeds 50% in some areas
The End Child Poverty campaign has published new figures for child poverty in each area which show that in 87 wards, a child is now more likely than not to grow up in poverty. They also indicate:

  • The areas of greatest deprivation have seen the greatest percentage point increases in poverty
  • The major cities continue to be the places with highest child poverty, including London, Birmingham and Manchester
  • There is huge variation between areas, with the local authority having the smallest number of children in poverty being the Isles of Scilly, at 5.17%

Sam Royston, Chair of the End Child Poverty Coalition, said,
‘It is scandalous that a child born in some parts of the UK now has a greater chance of growing up in poverty, than being in a family above the breadline. There can be little doubt that the Government’s policy of maintaining the benefits freeze despite rising prices is a major contributor to the emerging child poverty crisis.’

Insufficient progress on children’s health
The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health has published its 2018 report The State of Child Health in England. Whilst finding that some progress has been made in guidance for local authorities on child obesity and in collecting child health data, there is no evidence of change in areas such as:

  • Reducing child deaths
  • Developing research capacity to improve child health
  • Reducing child poverty

Children’s centres not being Ofsted inspected
Research by Action for Children has revealed that almost 1,000 children’s centres have not been inspected by Ofsted for over five years. The government’s freeze on children’s centre inspections was originally a short-term measure but two years later is still in place. Action for Children is calling on the Secretary of State Damian Hinds to review early years services and provide “a bold vision for the early years”.

The impact of free school meals
The Education Policy Institute has published extensive evaluation of universal free school meals for infants (UIFSM). Across the full calendar year, the estimated proportion of infants from the lowest quartile of household income receiving a free meal in the previous week increased from an estimated 25 per cent shortly before UIFSM’s introduction (equivalent to 34 per cent in a given school week) to 62 per cent (equivalent to 84 per cent in a given school week) afterwards. The research also found:

  • Some teachers thought attainment/progress in class (39 per cent); ability to complete deskbased activities (36 per cent); and ability to concentrate, not getting distracted (36 per cent) had increased as a result of UIFSM, with none reporting a deterioration.
  • 30 per cent of school leaders felt that pupils’ overall health had improved as a result of UIFSM being implemented, while 54 per cent of 57 teachers surveyed felt that the policy had had a positive impact on the health of children eligible for FSM.
  • 56 per cent of parents surveyed felt their child was more likely to try new foods following the introduction of UIFSM.

People power – supporting localism
The Commission on Localism, run by Locality and Power to Change, has published its research on how well policies supporting localism are working and what more is needed to empower communities. It calls for ‘radical action’ and recommends:

  • A strengthened partnership between local government and local people. For local government to embrace community-led solutions, including by transferring community buildings to local community organisations, more local control of budgets, and to strengthen community organisations who can make it easier for people to get involved in local activities
  • Central government to create a stronger framework for local decision making by strengthening the Localism Act including increased powers  for communities to take over important buildings with a new Community Right to Buy, to influence public services, through a new ‘services partnership power’, and by granting new powers to strengthen neighbourhood forums
  • Localism to be at the heart of the devolution agenda to ensure initiatives truly strengthen the power of community, enhance community accountability and neighbourhood control.

Framework, evaluation criteria and inspector guidance for the inspections of Local Authority Children’s Services.

Summary: Outlines the framework and guidance for inspecting local authority services for children in need of help and protection, children in care and care leavers in England, to be used from 2018. Describes the inspection principles and arrangements for standard, short inspections, and focused visits. Sets out arrangements for monitoring the progress of inadequate local authority children’s services, and for the action planning visit following an inadequate judgement. Explains the roles and expectations of inspectors including the inspection methodology. Includes information about evaluation criteria and grade descriptors.

Authors: OFSTED
Publication details: London: Ofsted, 2017
Go to publication

The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence.

Summary: Explores the relationship between childhood adversity, child-mother attachment and internalising behaviours (anxiety or depression) among a sample of 80 young people arrested for violence against a mother. Key findings include: high prevalence rates of childhood adversity; insecure attachment predicted depression among females and previous experience of maltreatment and/or witness to parental violence predicted anxiety among females. Highlights this is the first study to explore childhood adversity among a sample of perpetrators of child-to-mother violence.

Authors: Eva Nowakowski-Sims and Amanda Rowe
Journal: Child abuse and neglect (Vol.72), October 2017, pp 266-275
Go to publication

“It’s just everywhere”: a study on sexism in schools – and how we tackle it.

Summary: Explores the experiences and views of students and teachers about sexism in schools. Uses data from a survey of 1508 secondary school students and 1634 teachers at secondary and primary schools in England and Wales. Findings include: 37 per cent of female students at mixed-sex schools have experienced some form of sexual harassment at school; 24 per cent of female students at mixed-sex schools have been subjected to unwanted physical touching of a sexual nature while at school.

Authors: National Education Union, UK Feminista, Sophie Bennett, Kevin Courtney and Mary Bousted
Publication details: [London]: UK Feminista, 2017
Go to publication

County Lines Violence, Exploitation and Drug supply 2017: National Briefing Report.

Summary: Provides a national overview on the threat of ‘county lines’ drug supply, violence and exploitation, a model which involves networks from urban centres expanding their drug dealing activities into smaller towns and rural areas, often exploiting young or vulnerable people. Findings from a survey of police forces in England and Wales, Scotland and the Metropolitan Police include: 65 per cent of forces reported that county lines activity was linked to the exploitation of children; and 26 per cent of forces reported evidence of child sexual exploitation. The National Crime Agency estimates that there are at least 720 county lines across England and Wales, the majority of which will involve the exploitation of multiple young or otherwise vulnerable people.

Authors: National Crime Agency
Publication details: London: National Crime Agency, 2017
Go to publication

Narrative fragmentation in child sexual abuse: the role of age and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Summary: Assesses the effects of age and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on narrative fragmentation in memories for child sexual abuse (CSA), by analysing the lexical complexity, cohesion and coherence of allegations within a group of 86 children, aged 4-17, who were victims of CSA. Finds that age played an important role in establishing narrative coherence; PTSD was related to narrative coherence and cohesion. Highlights how narrative fragmentation could be an effective diagnostic tool for understanding the effects of PTSD in children.

Authors: Sarah Miragoli, Elena Camisasca and Paola Di Blasio
Journal: Child abuse and neglect (Vol.73), November 2017, pp 106-114
Go to publication

Childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder: evidence for stress sensitisation in the World Mental Health Surveys.

Summary: Investigates variation in associations of childhood adversities with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to childhood adversity type, traumatic experience types and life-course stage. Uses data from 27,017 individuals in the World Mental Health Survey. Findings show that physical and sexual abuse, child neglect and parent psychopathology were associates with similarly increased odds of PTSD.

Authors: Katie A. McLaughlin, Karestan C. Koenen, Evelyn J. Bromet, Elie G. Karam, Howard Liu, Maria Petukhova, Ayelet Meron Ruscio, Nancy A. Sampson, Dan J. Stein, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Guilherme Borges, Koen Demyttenaere, Rumyana V. Dinolova, Finola Ferry, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oye Gureje, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Marina Piazza, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Jose Posada-Villa, Margreet ten Have, Maria Carmen Viana and Ronald C. Kessler

Journal: The British journal of psychiatry (Vol.211, Iss.5), 2017, pp 280-288

The role of callous/unemotional traits in mediating the association between animal abuse exposure and behavior problems among children exposed to intimate partner violence.

Summary: Examines the relationship between children’s exposure to animal cruelty, callous/unemotional traits and externalising and internalising behaviour problems, in a sample of 291 children aged between 7 and 12 recruited from community-based domestic violence services. Findings include: child exposure to animal cruelty was associated with callousness, which in turn was associated with greater internalising and externalising problems; callous/unemotional traits are a potential mechanism through which childhood exposure to animal cruelty influences subsequent behaviour problems.

Authors: Shelby Elaine McDonald, Julia Dmitrieva, Sunny Shin, Stephanie A. Hitti, Sandra A. Graham-Bermann, Frank R. Ascione and James Herbert Williams
Journal: Child abuse and neglect (Vol.72), October 2017, pp 421-432
Go to publication

Evaluation of the Safeguarding Children Assessment and Analysis Framework (SAAF): Research Report.

Summary: Aims to determine whether complex assessment undertaken by social workers using the Safeguarding Children Assessment and Analysis Framework (SAAF) would result in children being less likely to experience abuse or re-abuse than children whose social worker did not use the SAAF. Findings include: there was no evidence that SAAF resulted in fewer children being subject to a second child protection plan (CPP) or to a CPP following assessment which had not initially resulted in a CPP. Concludes that there was ‘no evidence of effectiveness’ for SAAF rather than ‘evidence of ineffectiveness.

Authors: Geraldine Macdonald, Jane Lewis, Deborah Ghate, Evie Gardner, Catherine Adams and Grace Kelly
Publication details: London: Department for Education (DfE), 2017
Go to publication

Gender differences in pathways from physical and sexual abuse to early substance use.

Summary: Examines the relationship between child physical and sexual abuse and early substance misuse amongst young people known to child protection services. Uses a sample of 11-13-year-olds (467 girls and 329 boys). Results suggest a significant indirect effect of physical abuse to early substance misuse as a result of externalising behaviour problems in girls only. Recommends integrating mental health and substance use services.

Authors: Julia M. Kobulsky
Journal: Children and youth services review (Vol.83), December 2017, pp 25-32
Go to publication

If I could talk to me.

Summary: Short film showing the perspective of young care-experienced parents who are at risk of having a child taken into care. Highlights that 1 in 10 care leavers aged 16-21 years old have had a child taken into care. Offers advice to support young parents in care proceedings, including: don’t take things personally; don’t try to do things alone.

Authors: JfK Law
Publication details: JfK Law, 2017

Go to publication

Children England – Events & Consultations


Poverty Proofing the School Day Conference: Tackling Poverty and Inequality in our Schools
Organised by Children North East
Thursday 25th January 2018

9:30 am – 3:30pm
Manchester Hall, 36 Bridge St, Manchester, M3 3BT

Poverty Proofing the School Day is an innovative programme that identifies barriers to learning for students who do not have the same financial resource as their better off peers. This conference will explain the poverty proofing ethos sharing best practice from schools and delivery partners across the country, as well as looking at the evaluation completed by Newcastle University identifying a wide spectrum of positive impact on the school day around inclusion, attendance and attainment. The conference will consider how schools in the North West can respond to the poverty proofing work and explore how it can be best implemented in the region.
For more information contact



Closing 12th February 2018
Department for Education: Changes to teaching of sex and relationships education and PSHE

Closing 22nd February 2018
Department for Education: Keeping children safe in education

Closing 28th February 2018
Department for Education: Early education and childcare workforce: level 2 qualification criteria

Closing 2nd March 2018
Department of Health and Department for Education: Transforming children and young people’s mental health provision: a green paper

Children England – Parliamentary News

What Abouth YOUth?
Public Health England have released a further analysis of the 2014 What About YOUth? survey which examined the relationship between health behaviour and attitudes of 15 year olds with their reported levels of wellbeing. The analysis revealed:

  1. A clear link between wellbeing and affluence, with 15 year olds whose families were in more affluent groups and living in the least deprived areas reporting higher average wellbeing
  2. Young people who stated that they had a disability, long-term illness or medical condition reported lower wellbeing than those who did not
  3. Young people who engaged in behaviour which might harm their health such as drinking and smoking, having poor diet or exercising rarely, or who had negative feelings towards their body size reported lower wellbeing than those who did not
  4. Young people who described their sexual orientation as gay, lesbian, bisexual or ‘other’ were more likely to have lower wellbeing than those who declared themselves heterosexual. On average these young people also reported lower life satisfaction and happiness, and higher anxiety

The report urged practitioners and commissioners of health, social care and education to use the findings to design services that will have the most impact on improving young people’s wellbeing.

£29 million extra to boost councils supporting child refugees
Councils in England will receive additional funding to support unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC) and care leavers, Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government Sajid Javid confirmed yesterday. The funding aims to alleviate some of the pressures on local services such as housing, education and health services and fund projects that support vulnerable child refugees to integrate into their communities, for example by providing English language classes.

Councils to investigate state of the SEND system
As the April 2018 deadline approaches for the transfer of all children and young people with SEND statements to health, social and education care plans, councils have launched an investigation into the state of SEND system. Having expressed concern that rising demand for support for children and young people has not been mirrored by increased funding, councils are struggling to cope. The Local Government Agency task and finish group are expected to deliver their findings in September 2018.

County lines debate in Westminster
MPs in the Houses of Parliament will today debate county lines exploitation, the practice that has seen a growing number of vulnerable children and young people, many of whom are in care or at risk of abuse, groomed to deal drugs in rural and urban areas by criminal gangs. Tackling county lines is one of the government’s six key priorities within their End Gang Violence and Exploitation strategy.

Joan Ryan MP, leading the debate, called for the government to “put in place a national, interdepartmental and interagency strategy to tackle county lines and to protect vulnerable children and adults”.
Child protection concerns for homeless young offenders
HM Inspectorate of Probation has published its annual report finding that one in three homeless young offenders, aged 16 to 17 years, are placed in unsuitable and unsafe temporary accommodation by councils. The report blamed this on a lack of suitable accommodation or joined-up working between support agencies and professional’s tendency to treat this group of children as adults. Calling for an end to this practice, inspectors said greater recognition of this group’s needs as vulnerable children, the majority of whom have experienced trauma and being in care, was required.

In response, Alison Michalska, president of the Association of Directors of Children’s Services, said: “We take our duties to look after vulnerable young people seriously but finding suitable accommodation in the midst of a deepening housing crisis against a backdrop of falling budgets is the reality we face.”

Government launches £1.7 million fund to boost public service mutuals
Organisations that wish to create new or strengthen existing public service mutuals can apply for a share of up to £1.7 million, Tracey Crouch, Civil Society Minister, has announced. £1.2 million of the funding, from the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DMCS) department, will be available to provide access to advice across areas including legal, financial, marketing, human resources and business planning. The remainder will go towards pilot support programmes that promote collaboration between mutuals and voluntary and community organisations.

Children England – Sector News

4in10 campaign success 
4in10, London’s Child Poverty Campaigning Network, and Caroline Lucas MP, co-leader of the Green Party, have secured a pledge from the DWP to stop the disappearance of hundreds of children from childcare data. Early reports from local authorities indicated that children in families in receipt of universal credit were not appearing on their data lists, a technical issue that meant hundreds of two year olds could miss out on the two year old early years entitlement. Following questioning from Caroline Lucas MP and 4in10, the DWP have now committed to ensuring two year olds in families in receipt of universal credit will be included in data sent to local authorities from March 2018.
Growing divide between large and small to medium-sized charities
The government have been urged to reform its approach to contracting and commissioning favouring quality and specialism over scale and price, as latest figures reveal a growing divide between large and small-to-medium sized charities.

Data, released by the Charity Commission on 16th January 2018, shows:

  • The number of registered charities reached a nine-year high of over 168,000
  • Income for the sector has also reached a new high, above £75 billion
  • Most of the income growth came from larger charities, with a relative handful of larger charities growing bigger whilst small and local charities are struggling
  • Charities with an income of more than £10 million a year now account for 62.4% of the overall income of charities on the register, which is a 12 percentage point increase since 2007

Review into the health needs of care leavers published
The Care Leavers Association has published its findings from a three year study into the health needs of looked after children and care leavers. The report concluded that care leavers felt the health care system took inadequate account of the lifelong effects of trauma that is a frequent legacy of a child’s journey into and through the care system. A number of recommendations were produced to improve the commissioning process and improve health outcomes, including:

  1. The health needs of looked after children and care leavers to be a distinct section in the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA). This should, if possible be extended to adults aged 25+
  2. That a young person in care should have a comprehensive health assessment at entry into care which is then monitored and updated on a regular basis
  3. Commissioning of all mainstream health services to include targets for improving health outcomes for children in care and care leavers

The report has been released alongside a Commissioning Toolkit and a short guide for practitioners working with looked after children and care leavers, 45 ways

National Campaigners Awards
Do you know a person or organization that deserves to be celebrated for their campaigning? If so, the Shelia McKechnie Foundation are inviting nominations for their annual awards ceremony. The deadline for nominations is 11pm this Sunday, 21st January 2018.

Free campaigning guidebook published for charities
Freedom to Campaign, a free guidebook to campaigning within the Lobbying Act, has been published for charities by Campaign Collective. The 12-page guide explains what charities can and can’t do. It includes five quick tips, which are:

  1. Stay focused: If you have a campaign underway, it is unlikely to be covered by the Act
  2. Stay neutral: Don’t be party political, and don’t publicly shame politicians who don’t support you
  3. Stay within the law: Check out the public and purpose tests
  4. Stay clever: There are plenty of campaign tactics not covered by the Act
  5. Stay on top of time: Keep records of time and expenses spent on regulator

1 in 5 children and young people report experiencing emotional and behavioural problems
Results from the first HeadStart annual survey of 30,000 children, aged 10 to 16 years, found that across emotional and behavioural problems, being a child in need, being eligible for free school meals and having special educational needs were all associated with higher levels of mental health problems. Gender differences in types of mental health problems were also noted, with boys indicating they were experiencing more behavioural problems relative to girls and girls indicating they were experiencing more emotional problems relative to boys.

Social impact bond initiative launches to reduce number of children in care
Five London boroughs have launched a joint therapeutic care programme with a £4.5 million social impact bond, in a bid to keep more than 350 children and young people out of care. The Positive Families Programme has been commissioned by Tower Hamlets, Newham, Sutton, Bexley and Merton and aims to demonstrate the potential for collaboration in the commissioning of children’s services.

Non-suicidal self-injury: wellness perspectives on behaviors, symptoms, and diagnosis.

Summary: Aimed at counsellors and other clinicians, covers topics relating to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) including working with families, supervising counsellors, criteria for NSSI diagnosis, NSSI as a protective factor for preventing suicidal behaviour and advocacy around NSSI. Provides tools including questions to ask, hand outs for clients and their families, treatment hand outs and plans for counsellors.

Authors: Kelly L. Wester and Heather C. Trepal
Publication details: London: Routledge, 2017

Promoting young children’s emotional health and wellbeing: a practical guide for professionals and parents.

Summary: Provides ideas and activities designed to boost the self-esteem of children aged 0-5. Gives tips and instructions for exercises and activities including meditation, mud kitchens, group talks, treasure baskets and outdoor exploration, as well as advice on supporting adult wellbeing.

Authors: Sonia Mainstone-Cotton
Publication details: London: Jessica Kingsley, 2017

Childhood sexual abuse, attachments in childhood and adulthood, and coercive sexual behaviors in community males: main effects and a moderating function for attachment.

Summary: Reports on research that examined the association between attachment in childhood, child sexual abuse (CSA) and later coercive sexual behaviours in adult males. Data was collected from 176 males in Toronto on their coercive sexual behaviours with women, an assessment of attachment relationships with parents, their attachment styles as adults and their experiences of CSA and other adverse childhood experiences (ACE). Finds that the interaction between CSA and parental avoidant attachment behaviour was significant.

Go to publication

Authors: Calvin M. Langton, Zuwaina Murad and Bianca Humbert
Journal: Sexual abuse: a journal of research and treatment (Vol.29, No.3), April 2017, pp 207-238

Gender inequity associated with increased child physical abuse and neglect: a cross-country analysis of population-based surveys and country-level statistics.

Summary: Examines the relationship between gender inequity and child maltreatment, using caregivers’ reported use of severe physical punishment (physical abuse) and children under 5 left alone or under the care of another child less than 10 years old (supervisory neglect) and 3 indices of gender inequity from 57 countries, over half of which were developing countries. Finds three gender inequity indices to be significantly associated with physical abuse and 2 of the 3 to be significantly associated with neglect.

Authors: Joanne Klevens and Katie A. Ports
Journal: Journal of family violence (Vol.32, No.8), November 2017, pp 799-806

Time to transform: results of a survey of frontline professionals on the National Referral Mechanism for child victims of trafficking and modern slavery.

Summary: Explores professionals’ attitudes towards the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), the UK’s framework for identifying victims of human trafficking or modern slavery. Focuses specifically on the response to trafficked children. Key findings from a survey of frontline practitioners working with children who may have been trafficked include: over 80 per cent of respondents believed NRM decisions were not made in a suitable timeframe; 75 per cent felt decision-making should happen within existing child multi-agency procedures. Raises concerns about the NRM’s effectiveness in safeguarding trafficked children and calls on government to reform the system so it works more successfully for children.

Go to publication

Authors: ECPAT UK
Publication details: [London]: ECPAT UK, 2017

Deconstructing incidents of female perpetrated sex crimes: comparing female sexual offender groupings.

Summary: Examines data from 1992-2012 on incidents of sexual offending committed by four groupings of female sexual offenders (FSOs): solo (29,238), coed pairs (one male and one female) (11,112); all female groups (2,669); and multiple perpetrator groups consisting of 3 or more FSOs and male sexual offenders (4,268). Finds that solo FSOs and all-female groups have similar characteristics, and coed pairs and multiple perpetrators have similar characteristics and that these categorisations are distinct from each other.

Go to publication

Authors: Kristen M. Budd, David M. Bierie and Katria Williams
Journal: Sexual abuse: a journal of research and treatment (Vol.29, No.3), April 2017, pp 267-290

A Body Confident Future.

Summary: Looks at body image and the impact it has on the wellbeing of children and young people. Considers the extent, causes and consequences of body dissatisfaction among young people; the relationship between social media and body image; the role of schools in promoting positive body image; and health and body image. Makes recommendations to government including: the commissioning of research to address current gaps in the evidence base, including on poor body image in pre-adolescents, the link between poor body image and risky behaviours, and the long term impact of poor body image on young people; the development of resources to support the challenges faced by young men, LGBT+ youth, ethnic minorities, and those with disabilities or serious illnesses; and the establishment of an annual National Body Confidence week to act as a focus for body image activities.

Go to publication

Authors: British Youth Council Youth Select Committee
Publication details: London: British Youth Council, 2017

Children’s Services: Spending, 2010-11 to 2015-16.

Summary: Illustrates the trends in councils’ spending on children’s services between 2010/11 and 2015/16, with a focus on spending on services for children in need and looked after children. Updates the report originally published in July 2016. Estimated figures taken from section 251 returns indicates that total spending on children’s services decreased by 9 per cent in real terms between 2010/11 and 2015/16; average spend per child in need increased by 10 per cent; and average spend per looked after child decreased by 2%. Highlights large variations in spend per head depending on the individual local council.

Go to publication

Authors: Aldaba
Publication details: London: Department for Education (DfE), 2017

What does consent really mean?

Summary: Comic book format aimed at teenagers which explores the meaning of consent. Follows a group of teenagers chatting on their way home from school. They discuss the myths and taboos surrounding sex and consent, talk about their own experiences and debate what’s okay and what’s not. Includes questions and information to start a conversation with a young person, or to form the basis for a lesson or workshop on sex, healthy relationships and consent.

Authors: Pete Wallis and Thalia Wallis
Publication details: London: Singing Dragon, 2018

Violence and maltreatment in intimate relationships.

Summary: Overviews violence and maltreatment in intimate relationships. Includes chapters on: child physical and sexual abuse; child neglect; emotional abuse; intimate partner violence in adolescent and emerging adult relationships, including stalking and harassment and dating violence; violence experienced by older people and people with disabilities.

Authors: Cindy L. Miller-Perrin, Robin D. Perrin and Claire M. Renzetti
Publication details: London: Sage, 2018